Friday, February 27, 2015

Ain Shams University
Faculty of Education
Department of English
The General diploma for Teacher preparation

    Name: Basma Muhammad Abdel-Samie Ahmed

    Academic year: 2014-2015

    Teacher preparation General diploma

    Department of English

Bahaa Abdel-Mageed’s Temble Bar and James Joice’s Portrait of an artist as a comparative study that discusses the biography of the both.


        *  In the introduction, I handled the idea of what is literature and what is comparative literature and why we should deal with the comparative literature. By the end of the introduction I mentioned the paper thesis that is Bahaa Abdel-Magid’s Temple Bar and James Joyce’s Portrait of an artist as a comparative study of two different cultures that discusses the biography of the both.

        *  In Bahaa versus Joyce, I tackled an introduction about them with their famous works.
        *  In What influence Bahaa Abdelmegid’s and James Joyce’s writings, I handled the factors that         affect their writings and lead to these great works.
       *   In, Temple Bar VS The Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man, I get both Temple bar and the portrait of an artist as a young man as an example of autobiography of both writers. In addition I handled the setting “Dublin” that affect both Moataz and Stephen. I also offer a quick summary of the main idea of the novels through Moataz and Stephen.

        *  Then a conclusion in which I mentioned my point of view.

        *  And finally the references that guide you in your study and for further studies. 


          Titles                                                  pages

The paper title                                                             2
Acknowledgement                                                      3
Contents                                                                       4
Introduction                                                                 5
Bahaa Abdel Magid VS James Joyce                     6             
Bahaa Abdel Magid                                                   6     
James Joyce                                                                6
What influence both writers                                      7
Comparison of two literary works:                          10
Temple Bar                                                                  10  
The portrait of an artist as a young man                12
Conclusion                                                                   18        
References                                                                   19

           For some critics like T.S. Eliot, literature is to be seen and examined only by comparison with other literary works. He said in his well-known article “Tradition and the Individual Talent”:

“No poet, no artist of any art, has his complete meaning alone.
 His significance, his appreciation is the appreciation of his
relation to the dead poets and artists. You cannot value him alone;
you must set him, for contrast and comparison, among the dead.
 I mean this as a principle of aesthetics, not merely historical, criticism.”

          This shows that literature is not created in isolation. The proper way of studying literature is to examine each literary text against another either in the same culture or from other culture/s. (5)

           The knowledge of more than one national language and literature is what known by comparative literature. It means the knowledge and application of other disciplines in and for the study of literature. Historically, it is true that Comparative Literature demonstrated a focus on European literatures and later on European and American literature. At the same time, however, the discipline paid more attention to "Other" literatures than any of the national literatures. (1)
          It is the branch of literary history that deals with literary relationships, similarities, and distinctions among different countries. Similarities between works of literature may be based on similarities in the social and cultural development of the respective countries of origin or on cultural and literary contacts between the countries. (2)
          Comparative literature systematically extends this latter tendency, aiming to enhance awareness of the qualities of one work by using the products of another linguistic culture as an illuminating context; or studying some broad topic or theme as it is realized (‘transformed’) in the literatures of different languages. (3) It helps in getting the combined study of similar literary works written in different languages, which stresses the points of connection between literary products of two or more cultures.(4)

          From this perspective, I can take Bahaa Abdel-Magid’s Temple Bar and James Joyce’s Portrait of an artist as a comparative study of two different cultures that discusses the biography of the both.

    Bahaa Abdel Magid VS James Joyce


          Bahaa Abdel Magid holds a Ph.D. in English literature from Ain Shams University, where he also teaches. He is the author of many novels, as well as a collection of short stories. Bahaa Abdelmegid is the author of collections of short stories and novels, including Saint Theresa (Sharkyat & Dar press 2000), Sleeping with Strangers (Meriet 2006 &AUC Press, 2010), The Black Piano (the new culture press 1996), and The Mountain of Decoration (Meriet press 2005& Dar press 2007) . His new novel Temple Bar (Meriet press 2011) translated by award-winning Jonathan Wright, has just been published by the AUC Press. He also writes a lot of short stories like: The Paradise’s Leaves (Meriet press 2012), Waiting, Amsterdam, The Tulip, Hiroshima’s Girl, and Carrion Hotel. The novelist Egyptian writer is currently working on a new novel, Red Velvet, set in Egypt in the 1930s.
James Joyce Conference in Rome
          James Augustine (incorrectly registered as "Augusta") Joyce was born on February 2, 1882, in the Dublin suburb of Rathgar, Ireland. Son of a dutiful mother and a charming but improvident father, Joyce was the oldest of ten surviving children; five others died in infancy. Despite the family's continuous financial instability, however, Joyce's father was aware of his son's exceptional talents, and he arranged for Joyce to attend two of Ireland's most prestigious educational institutions, thereby providing his son with a solid, impressive education. His major works are Dubliners,  A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man,  Exiles and poetry, Ulysses, Finnegan’s Wake. (6)

What influence Bahaa Abdelmegid’s and James Joyce’s writings
          I can say that Abdelmegid’s works are affected by many factors: one of them is his reading to the Holy Quraan as he said :
The more I grow up and have matured enough thoughts, the more different I can reread             the Holy Quraan and all literary works. He can see different interpretations. He gives the example of Araaf Sourah in the Holy Quraan as he mentioned that in addition to talking about prophet Mousa’s story there is also the relation between Man and God and the relation between the people and the governor”. (7)
«كلما كبرت في العمر ونضجت في التجربة، تجدني أقرأه بعين مختلفة، وأرى تأويلات متعددة المستويات، ففي سورة الأعراف مثلا، ورغم أنها تستفيض في سرد قصة سيدنا موسى عليه السلام، فإنها لا تقف عند هذا المستوى، وإنما تتحدث عن الإنسان في علاقته بالإله، والفرعون الذي أوحى للناس بأنه إله، وعن علاقة الحاكم بالمحكوم، وعن الطغاة من الحُكام».
          His rereading to religious and heritage books as “prophets’ stories, and a thousand and a thousand nights also is another factor. For English Literature, he mentioned that his rereading to Charles Dickens’s and James Joyce’s works makes my a lot hungry for writing as they owned the deep philosophy of human existence. They help the creative writer to fill the spaces in his mind to make a similar, different or near literary work of their visions.
«أعيد قراءة أعمال تشارلز ديكينز، وجميس جويس اللذين أعتبرهما من أكثر الأدباء عمقا وحكمة، فقراءتي لهما تثير شهيتي للكتابة، والتفكير، فلديهما الفلسفة العميقة للوجود الإنساني، وكتاباتهما تترك لدى المبدع خيوطا وفراغات يمكن أن يتبعها ليصنع حوارا أدبيا مخالفا أو متفقا أو متماسا مع رؤيتهما». (7)
           Unlike Abdelmegid, The first thing to affect the nine-year-old boy “James Joyce” was the death of Charles Stewart Parnell, the leader of the Irish Nationalist Party. Parnell's downfall and his subsequent death were important in Joyce's life not only because they made him aware of the disparity between Church and State in Ireland, but also because they created within the mind of a boy who had admired Parnell's heroism a fear that Ireland would always destroy its own prophets. The effect of this revelation on nine-year-old Joyce is clearly evident in "Et Tu, Healy," a poem he wrote and distributed to friends, denouncing the man who was partly responsible for Parnell's undoing. For the most part, Joyce's school years seem idyllic, but two significant events occurred when he was fourteen which helped shape the boy's spiritual and creative future. First, Joyce was admitted to, and later became the prefect of, the school's Sodality of the Blessed Virgin Mary; and second, he had his first sexual experience — with a Dublin prostitute; this paradoxical turn of events occurred within just a few weeks of each other. (Joyce's attempts to reconcile the trinity of women, sex, and creativity are woven throughout his works.) Two years later, Joyce entered University College in Dublin. (8)
          On January 7, 1904, he sat down to write a piece for Dana, a new intellectual journal. He composed a lengthy autobiographical, satirical piece which, at his brother Stanislaus' suggestion, he entitled "A Portrait of the Artist." A month later, the editors at Dana rejected the work because of its sexual content, but Joyce seized on this opportunity to develop the manuscript into a novel entitled Stephen Hero; the protagonist would be a Catholic artist who was both a hero and a martyr. The novel was published posthumously in 1944, and today, Stephen Hero is treasured because of the rich lode of autobiographical material which Joyce used for his later fictional masterpiece, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.
          In September 1907, Joyce began to transform Stephen Hero into A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, retaining "Stephen Daedalus" for the protagonist's name. It was a name which Joyce himself had already used as a pen name, and it was also a name which linked the first Christian martyr (Stephen) and the mythic Greek maze-maker (Daedalus), a man known for his cunning and skill. In addition, because Daedalus was the father of Icarus (who attempted to fly with wings fashioned by his father), the surname provided Joyce with multiple variations on the flight theme, a motif which would pervade the novel. Later, Joyce changed the spelling of the hero's last name — ostensibly, in order to deemphasize the autobiographical nature of the book.
          In 1915, after the outbreak of World War I, Joyce moved his family to Zurich, and there he finished A Portrait and received welcome assistance from such literary notables as William Butler Yeats and an American exile, Ezra Pound, both of whom were instrumental in A Portrait's being published in serial form in The Egoist. The first installment appeared in 1914, on Joyce's birthday, February 2. The publication of A Portrait as a single volume met with difficulties, and it was only with the help of two literary patronesses, Harriet Shaw Weaver and Edith Rockefeller McCormick, that it was finally published by B. W. Huebsch in New York in 1916, and later in England by Miss Weaver's newly formed Egoist Press, in 1917. Coincidentally, Dubliners was also published in 1914, by Grant Richards.
          The final days of Joyce's life were filled with frustration — beginning with the angry, critical reception of Finnegans Wake and continuing through the beginning of World War II, an event which once again necessitated Joyce's moving his family. In addition, Joyce's eyes and his general health had begun to steadily decline, and he was continually worried about the mental instability of his daughter, Lucia; she had suffered a severe mental breakdown in 1932 and was diagnosed as an incurable schizophrenic. In spite of the hopelessness of Lucia's condition, Joyce persisted in trying to find a cure for her; he felt that in some way he was responsible — that he had failed her as a father.
          I think that Abdelmegid has read a lot for Joyce that makes him to some how affected by his writing. In another way, Joyce’s writings encourage Abdelmegid and push him to write his biography. So, I see that both Abdelmegid and Joyce are similar in their writings as both wrote autobiography novels as found in Temple Bar and Sleeping with Strangers novels of Abdelmegid and the portrait of an artist as a young man For Joyce.

Temple Bar VS The Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man

          Temple bar is a novel that discusses the author’s autobiography. Here, the author wrote about his own experience once he traveled to Dublin and what happened to him. The author succeeded in depicting himself through the character of Moataz.  He himself stated this in his interview with

"Temple Bar portrays stages of my life. You can call it a bildungsroman, like James Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, where it reflects my physical and spiritual growth and mental dilemmas."

Temple bar rates the experience of an important Egyptian scholar preparing his PHD in Dublin, and is his most ambitious work to date-one that was 12 years in the making. The novel deals with themes of loneliness and unrequited love and also of culture shock, immigration and ultimately redemption.

The idea of the novel started as Abdelmegid said when he was in Dublin and wanted to write a diary; a story or his observation, but he found himself creating characterization, settings he was infatuated with the nature of Ireland , and the heat and fever of life there. He was overwhelmed by the gloomy weather sometimes especially during the rain, because came from Egypt which is very sunny and open. So, it made him depressed and lonely and miserable. For him, writing was an outlet and a way to express his mood and his isolation.

When Abdelmegid came back to Cairo, Dublin was pressing on him and full of experiences and people he met. He couldn’t live without recording Dublin. The ghosts were with him and writing Temple bar was a way to get that experience out of him.

Abdelmegid started writing Temple bar as a part of his own autobiography and get Moataz as his protagonist to depict himself in. Moataz, the hero of Temple Bar, is a romantic figure, very melancholic, kind, superstitious, and revolutionary but at the same time is very static. Sensitivity is an important aspect of any human being because it makes him or her respond quickly to any action in life, good or bad.

 For being an autobiography, the author himself stated that he tried to mix between what is personal and what is imagined. For example he went to Dublin to study for his PhD at Trinity College and he studied Seamus Heaney. Some characters are fictitious but some of them were inspired by his experience there and their lives actually ended the way he described in the book. It portrays stages of his life. You can call it a bildungsroman, like James Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, where it reflects his physical and spiritual growth and mental dilemmas.

          The Dublin he described in the novel is real and true and the Irish people and Egyptian characters are true but colored by his own imagination. Dublin is alien territory for young and impoverished Egyptian academic Moataz, who is preparing a PhD on Irish poet Seamus Heaney. Moataz has enough problems with his family's high expectations and the unrequited, idealized love that he left behind in Cairo. Now he has to deal with cantankerous landlords, the inscrutable local women, the Irish judiciary, haunted seminaries, and cold winter nights selling flowers on the banks of the Liffey to make ends meet. His own personal demons travel with him, especially the clash between his sexual desires and his reluctance to become emotionally entangled with anyone other than his version of the ideal woman. In his year away from home Moataz learns how diverse the world is, but returning to Cairo is a shock that tests his physical and mental strength. Only when he passes that test he can make a promising new start. (10)

          Temple Bar is a tragedy that portrays the failure of Moataz and his will to survive regardless of all suffering and pain. The issue of racism towards Arabs and Moataz’s moral struggle with resisting Irish women are two recurring themes.  So we could say that the novel is actually about tolerance and temptation. It is also about choices, either to choose to mix or resist and isolate yourself. Moataz does not have a clear idea about what he wants. He has desires but also religious and moral commitments to a woman he loves in Cairo. The greatness of Moataz is that he admits and confesses his desires and his urgent need to satisfy them. Meanwhile there is something vague and superstitious forbidding him from doing everything that tempts him. (12)

      We do need tolerance in this world, including in Egypt and Ireland. The Irish suffered a lot in their history, especially when the English nobility annexed their land in the 19th century. Today the Irish face the challenges of having joined the European Union because it brings in many foreigners into Ireland. The Irish have a complex toward the English and it translates into fear and rejection of foreigners. This is Moataz’s experience. The only person who is really sympathetic to him is Simone, who believes in peace but gets killed in the Omagh 1998 bombing. She believes that music can heal racism and sectarian violence in the world.

       The novel takes place in Ireland and Joyce is Moataz’s favorite writer. Moataz identifies himself with the myth of the lost Jew embodied in Leopold Bloom who searches for a home and acceptance. But also Bloom is in love with Molly who is not faithful to him, just like Moataz who is in love with Siham who married, ignoring his love, leaving him to suffer. Moataz also roams Dublin like Bloom, searching for experience and the meaning of life. The author tried to discuss the Jewish dilemma of seeking a home.(11)

          Moataz is a human being who has principles but is confused. He is strong and full of pride of himself and where he comes from. He also likes to show off his knowledge. His experience in Dublin has taught him how to love his country even more. He feels that he needs to defend himself and his origins. He respects his religious background on one hand but at the same time struggles with his desires that he hesitates to fulfill. He also wants to prove that he is from the East, especially Egypt, with its great civilization. What Moataz is looking for is companionship and sympathy. Moataz was not spoiled by his mother. She treated him differently because she realizes he is not an ordinary child and man, and she wants him to be successful. She is not always kind to him and even gets aggressive with him during his depressions. But at the same time, she wants to protect him from other people who will accuse him of madness. (8)

           The experience in Dublin change Moataz on many levels physical, psychological, and spiritual. At the same time it brought out all his fears and madness.
Temple Bar explores the marginalization, cultural misunderstandings, and racism he encounters during his year’s study abroad. Here we pick up the story on Moataz’s arrival in the Irish capital. (11)

Dublin, 1998

I was waiting for someone to help me carry my bag, but no one volunteered. Aggrieved that I asked, one young man said my bag was my business, while a woman suggested that there were bags with wheels that didn’t take so much effort to drag. Then she laughed. I would find out later that there was a scare about strangers and bags, which might contain explosives since terrorist operations were common, especially in Belfast in Northern Ireland.
Dublin didn’t seem surprising at all. It wasn’t as I had expected a European city to be. The streets were narrow. There were the modest English-style terraced houses, the old bridges across the little river, the simple shops, the children begging, the old people, and the impetuous young people, some of them Irish and some of them immigrants. (9)

         The novel, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce, begins with Stephen Dedalus' first memories, when he was about three years old. The fragmented lines are from a childhood story and a nursery song, and are linked with family associations, sensory perceptions, and pieces of conversation. In this opening scene, Joyce is presenting to us the genesis of a future artist's perception and interpretation of the world.

          Moving from Stephen's infancy to his early days at Clongowes Wood College, a Jesuit boarding school for boys, Joyce focuses on three key incidents which significantly affect Stephen's personality. First, Stephen is pushed into an open cesspool by a bullying classmate, and, subsequently, he develops a fever which confines him to the school infirmary; here, he begins to discern that he is "different," that he is an outsider.
          Later, when he is probably six years old, Stephen returns home to celebrate Christmas dinner with his family and is invited, for the first time, to sit with the adults at the dinner table. This extraordinarily happy occasion is marred by a heated political argument between Stephen's old nurse, Dante Riordan, and a dinner guest, Mr. Casey, leaving Stephen confused about the issues of religion and politics in the adult world.
          On returning to school, Stephen accidentally breaks his glasses and is unable to complete his classwork. He is unjustly humiliated and punished by the cruel prefect of studies, but after receiving encouragement from a friend, Stephen bravely (if fearfully) goes to the rector of the school and obtains justice. The success of this meeting instills in him a healthy self-confidence and ennobles him, for a moment, in the eyes of his classmates.
          After a brief summer vacation at his home in Blackrock, Stephen learns that his father's financial reversals make it impossible to return to Clongowes Wood; instead, he is enrolled in a less prestigious Jesuit day school, Belvedere College. Here, he develops a distinguished reputation as an award-winning essay writer and a fine actor in his school play. Despite these accomplishments, however, Stephen feels increasingly alienated from his schoolmates because of his growing religious skepticism and his deep interest in literature and writing. This feeling of isolation is intensified during a trip with his father to Cork, where he learns more about his father's weaknesses.
          Stephen becomes increasingly repelled by the dead-end realities of Dublin life. Frustrated by his loss of faith in the Catholic Church, in his family situation, and in his cultural bonds, Stephen seeks to "appease the fierce longings of his heart." After wandering through the city's brothel district, he finds momentary solace with a Dublin prostitute. He is fourteen years old, and this is his first sexual experience.
          After a period of "sinful living," Stephen attends an intense three-day spiritual retreat. During that time, he is overwhelmed by guilt and remorse; he believes that Father Arnall is speaking directly to him. Panicking, he seeks out a kindly old Capuchin priest, pledges moral reform, and rededicates himself to a life of purity and devotion. He fills his days with fervent prayers and takes part in as many religious services as he can.
          Noticing Stephen's exceedingly pious behavior, the director of the school arranges a meeting to encourage Stephen to consider entering the priesthood. At first, Stephen is flattered, fascinated by the possibilities of the clerical life, but increasingly he is tormented by carnal desires. He finally realizes that his "inherent sinful nature" makes it necessary for him to reject a religious vocation.
          Having made this discovery about himself, Stephen decides to enroll in the university, where he hopes to shape his destiny as an artist. This decision is immediately followed by a climactic "epiphany": he sees a girl wading in the sea; to Stephen, she embodies the attraction, the promise, and the abandon which he wishes to experience in life. It is at this moment that Stephen understands that he can only hope to gain this experience through a life of artistic expression.
          Shortly thereafter, Stephen begins a new life as a young man in search of his own values and his own credo. In comparison with the other college students, Stephen often seems anti-social and more concerned with pursuing his own interests than supporting the causes of others. Even Stephen himself realizes that unlike most of his friends, he is unusually introspective. He is not the typical devil-may-care university student; he rejects the typical blind patriotic blather, and although he continues to respect the Catholic faith, he no longer believes that its tenets should govern his life. Through conversations with friends and a dean of studies, Stephen eventually develops his own aesthetic theory of art, based on the philosophies of Aristotle and Aquinas. Simultaneously, he concludes that if he is ever going to find his artistic soul, he must sever all bonds of faith, family, and country. He must leave Dublin and go abroad to "forge" his soul's "uncreated conscience."
          A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man details events which closely correspond with those of Joyce's first twenty years. According to Joyce's celebrated biographer, Richard Ellman, Joyce hoped that his Portrait would be an autobiographical novel, "turning his life into fiction." While scholars disagree on the extent to which Joyce's life affected his fictional narrative in the novel, most of them concur that Stephen Dedalus is both the protagonist of the novel, as well as the persona (Latin, meaning "mask") behind which Joyce paints his fictional "portrait" of the "artist" and of the "young man."
          A close examination of these obvious clues in the title reveals to readers that the novel can be classified as both a Kunstlerroman (German, meaning a novel about an artist) and a Bildungsroman (German, meaning a novel of development or education). If we understand these terms, we can more clearly understand Joyce's primary purpose for writing the novel.
          We must keep in mind, however, that many of the people and the situations of the novel have been presented in the form of satire. We must also be aware that the author selected this technique to emphasize how the life of an artist differs from that of others who share his world.
          In A Portrait, the reader learns through the particular experiences of Stephen Dedalus how an artist perceives his surroundings, as well as his views on faith, family, and country, and how these perceptions often conflict with those prescribed for him by society. As a result, the artist feels distanced from the world. Unfortunately, this feeling of distance and detachment is misconstrued by others to be the prideful attitude of an egoist. Thus the artist, already feeling isolated, is increasingly aware of a certain growing, painful social alienation.
          In addition, Stephen's natural, maturing sexual urges confuse him even further. Stephen is a keenly intelligent, sensitive, and eloquent young man. He also possesses the feelings of urgent sexuality, self-doubt, and insecurity — all universal emotions which are experienced during the development of the average adolescent male. Joyce reveals these tumultuous adolescent feelings through a narrative technique called stream-of-consciousness. He takes the reader into both the conscious mind and the subconscious mind, showing him the subjective and the objective realities of a situation. Using Stephen Dedalus, he explores the depths of the human heart.
          This novel is narrated, for the most part, in the limited omniscient point of view; at the same time, it progresses in form from the lyrical and epical modes of expression and moves finally into the dramatic mode of expression. (These "modes of expression" are Stephen's own terms, defining the various kinds of literature; when we encounter them in the novel, we should write down Stephen's definitions and attempt to chart the course of this novel according to its evolving lyrical, epical, and dramatic levels.)
          Stephen's thoughts, associations, feelings, and language (both cerebral and verbal) serve as the primary vehicles by which the reader shares with Stephen the pain and pleasures of adolescence, as well as the exhilarating experiences of intellectual, sexual, and spiritual discoveries.
          In order to highlight the importance of Stephen's aesthetic experiences, Joyce borrowed a word from the Catholic faith in order to create a literary term of his own. When Stephen suddenly understands "the essential nature of a thing" — whether it is the understanding of a person, an idea, a word, or a situation — he has a moment of profound revelation. Joyce called these moments epiphanies.
          Some of Stephen's earliest epiphanies come from his acute sensory awareness and are recorded through Joyce's masterful use of imagery. In the novel, repeated patterns of sounds and remembrances of tastes, touches, and smells are all emphasized. Stephen's eyesight (like Joyce's) is weak; therefore, Joyce emphasizes other senses, and in doing so, he employs the valuable motif method of narration, wherein he records recurrent images of hot/cold, wet/dry, and light/dark images, as well as recurring symbols. He also uses dramatic irony to identify Stephen's basic conflicts and emphasize significant events in his life.
          Although several themes such as alienation and betrayal exist in the novel, Ellman states that Joyce originally recognized the work's main theme as "the portrait of the renegade Catholic artist as hero." Certainly, evidence from Joyce's life mirrors Stephen's need to escape the bonds of Irish nationalism and Catholicism, both of which seemed to threaten his pursuit of a literary career.
          The most obvious clue that the author's life is related to the novel's thematic development exists in the hero's name — Stephen Dedalus, which combines significant elements of both Greek and Christian myths. "Stephen" is the name of the first Christian martyr who was persecuted for reasons of faith. Joyce's hero identifies with his patron's martyrdom by recalling an early reprimand against marrying a Protestant, the unjust pandying incident, and a variety of instances wherein he was ostracized or made to feel guilty by his peers and older people.
          It is, however, the author's choice of his character's family name — Dedalus — which reveals to readers the source of the novel's greatest thematic parallel. The myth of Daedalus and Icarus, the story of the cunning Greek inventor and his ill-fated, impetuous son, is the framework responsible for the major imagery and symbolism which pervade the novel.
          Daedalus, an architect commissioned by King Minos, designed an elaborate labyrinth in which the king planned to confine the monstrous Minotaur. However, ill-fortune soon caused Daedalus and Icarus to be imprisoned in the labyrinth, from which they were forced to contrive a daring and ingenious escape.
          Symbolically, Stephen, like Daedalus, feels compelled to find a means of escape from the labyrinth of Dublin, which threatens him with spiritual, cultural, and artistic restraints. Similarly, Stephen can also be compared with Icarus, who flew too close to the sun, melted his fabricated wings, and plunged to his death in the sea. Like Icarus, Stephen ignores the warnings of family and clergy and is symbolically drawn toward a philosophical illumination which ultimately casts him into sin (spiritual death) and leads him to renounce his Catholic faith.
          The final and most dramatic parallel associates Stephen with his mythic namesake Daedalus — the "great artificer." Like Daedalus, Stephen succeeds in escaping the labyrinth of cultural restraints. At the end of the novel, Stephen is imaginatively soaring — in flight away from Ireland toward a future of unfettered artistic freedom.(8)
        In the novel, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Joyce attempts to weave much of the fabric of his real life into an artful tapestry of fiction. Most of the following characters in the novel are based on people who actually existed in Joyce's life; in almost every case, he portrayed them as fictional representations of religious, social, and cultural elements of Ireland as they influenced Stephen Dedalus, a maturing, sensitive young artist. Those persons are like the list of the Main Characters” (The Dedalus Family; Stephen Dedalus, Simon Dedalus, Mary Dedalus, Maurice Dedalus, Uncle Charles, Aunt Dante (Mrs. Riordan), Katey, Maggy, and Boody Dedalus).  Other Characters like; (Mr. (John) Casey and Eileen Vance), (Clongowes Wood College (in Chapter I); Father Arnall, and Father Dolan), (University College, Dublin (in Chapter V); Dean of Studies, Cranly, Lynch, Davin,  MacCann and Temple) and many others.

          I see that temple bar is the autobiography of Bahaa Abdel- Magid. It talks about his experience in traveling to Dublin to finish his PhD and how it affects him. I see that he is greatly affected by Naguib Mahfouz , the Egyptian Writer, as you can see his very good style as he succeeded in describing the feelings of Moataz and the place Dublin that makes you feel you were in the place.

          I also see that, if you read “Sleeping with Strangers “ novel , you can see great similarity between the two main characters Bassem in Sleeping with strangers and Moataz in Temple Bar. They both left their country and traveled abroad for study. They both fell in love with a girl and they both didn’t succeed in completing their love story as with Bassem his lover is killed by the terrorists’ explosions and for Moataz it was a one- side love and she is married to another of the same social class. And also divorce.
          I see that Abdel Magid repeated his autobiography in the two novels Temple bar and sleeping with strangers.

          I see also that the Abdelmegid tries to be free in his writing. He portrays Moataz as the person who go to the bar for selling flowers and avoiding drinking wine. The Title “Temple” and “bar” they are both totally different places even people who went for both are of different characters. Yet, choosing this title means that he is greatly affected by the Arab culture and the religion that have some taboos. So, I think he chose the title Temple as a way to stick to religion and send a message that religion is always the salvation. You can see the story begins with Moataz who is trying to commit suicide, and tried to come it true but the action is delayed till the end of the novel. Instead he went to street to share the revolution and succeeded in getting out and expressing all his negative feelings.

          I see, for avoiding repetition, Abdel Magid should think of writing out of biographies or autobiographies. He will succeed in offering greater works. Yet his works are great and successful.

          Finally, reading biographies really amuses a lot of readers. So, I can consider both Temple bar and the portrait of an artist as a young man as successful novels. I waiting for more.   

1- Steven Totosy de Zepetnek; Comparative Literature: Theory, Method, Application.
       Editions Rodopi B.V., Amsterdam - Atlanta, GA 1998.
3- Peter Childs and Roger Fowler; The Routledge Dictionary of Literary Terms, Routledge 2006.
4- CHRIS BALDICK;  The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms
      OXFORD UNIVERSITY press 2001.
5- Dr. Ayid Sharyan; Comparative Literature: Its Implications for Yemeni Learners of English 6-Damascus University Journal, Vol.26 No.1+2, 2010.

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